Centre for South Asian Studies Lectures
A lecture series organized by the CSAS
Kajri Jain, Malavika Kasturi, Ruth Marshall, Srilata Raman, and J. Barton Scott
Religion and the Modern Self: Discussing J. Barton Scott’s Spiritual Despots
Historians of religion have examined at length the Protestant Reformation and the liberal idea of the self-governing individual that arose from it. In Spiritual Despots, J. Barton Scott reveals an unexamined piece of this story: how Protestant technologies of asceticism became entangled with Hindu spiritual practices to create an ideal of the “self-ruling subject” crucial to both nineteenth-century reform culture and early twentieth-century anticolonialism in India. Scott uses the quaint term “priestcraft” to track anticlerical polemics that vilified religious hierarchy, celebrated the individual, and endeavored to reform human subjects by freeing them from external religious influence. By drawing on English, Hindi, and Gujarati reformist writings, Scott provides a panoramic view of precisely how the specter of the crafty priest transformed religion and politics in India.
J. Barton Scott is assistant professor of Historical Studies and the Study of Religion at the University of Toronto. His research bridges the study of modern South Asian religions and the cultural history of the study of religion, with particular attention to questions of colonialism, media, and public culture. He is the author of Spiritual Despots: Modern Hinduism and the Genealogies of Self-Rule (Chicago, 2016) and the co-editor of Imagining the Public in Modern South Asia (Routledge, 2016), and his published articles have appeared in journals including Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East and the Journal of the American Academy of Religion. His current research clusters around several themes and questions, including the history of liberalism in colonial India, the mediation and legal regulation of religious controversy, and the global travels of the Victorian self-help book.
Kajri Jain is interested in how the efficacies, affects, and values associated with images arise not only from what goes on within the picture-frame but also from the production, circulation and deployments of images as material objects. She finds it useful to bring ethnographic sensibilities and methods to ‘visual’ studies. Her work on popular images in modern India (such as the bazaar icons known as calendar art, or monumental statues and theme parks) has largely focused on a vernacular business ethos where religion has been the primary site for adopting new media and expressive techniques. Kajri Jain is author of Gods in the Bazar. The Economies of Indian ‘Calendar Art’.
Malavika Kasturi teaches South Asian history in the Department of Historical Studies, and is graduate faculty at the Departments of History and the Centre for the Study of Religion. Her past research analysed the reconstitution of the family and martial masculinities amongst elite lineages in British India, against the backdrop of colonial ideologies, political culture and material realities. Malavika Kasturi is currently finalising a book manuscript which explores the intersection of monasticism with a host of political bodies espousing visions of the Hindu ‘nation’.
Ruth Marshall is associate professor, at the Department for the Study of Religion and the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto. Her research and teaching engage with contemporary intersections of religion, politics and public life, interrogating articulations of religion, secularism and democratic theory from an interdisciplinary and comparative perspective. Ruth Marshall’s past research covers a range of empirical issues based on many years of fieldwork in West Africa with a theoretical interest in questions of subjectivity, citizenship, political exclusion and violence.
Srilata Raman is associate professor of Hinduism at the University of Toronto and works on medieval South Asian/South Indian religion, bhakti, historiography and hagiography, religious movements in early colonial India from the South as well as modern Tamil literature. Srilata Raman’s academic interests include Sanskrit and Tamil intellectual formations in South India from pre-colonial times to modernity, neo-Hinduism, Colonial Sainthood and modern Tamil literature. Her current work focuses on early colonial Tamil Saivism and the reformulations of religion, linked to notions of the body.
Lectures in the Arts, Histories, Literatures and Religions of Burma
Presented by the Southeast Asia Seminar Series and the Centre for South Asian Studies
Thursday, March 3, 2017, 4-6 pm, UTSG, JHB 317
D. Christian Lammerts (Rutgers University)
Buddhist Law in Burma: A History of Dhammasattha Texts and Jurisprudence, c. 1250–1850 CE
The legal history of Burma over the course of the second millennium CE offers a series of literary, juridical, and intellectual contributions that are unique when considered in relation to the wider Buddhist world of South, Central, and East Asia. From the 13th through 19th centuries upper Burma was a regional center for the production of a distinctive genre of Buddhist legal literature known as dhammasattha (“treatise on law”), whose laws claimed jurisdiction over all members of society, including monks and laypersons, and kings, commoners, and slaves. Prose and verse dhammasattha texts were composed in Pali and vernacular languages (Burmese, Mon, Arakanese, Shan, etc.), as well as in bilingual gloss versions (nissaya), and there is extensive testimony, dating from the mid-13th century onward, for their utilization by judges in contexts of dispute resolution. Aspects of the early history of this genre can be gleaned from lithic epigraphy, vernacular poetry, and bibliographic catalogues (piṭakat samuiṅḥ), although surviving dhammasattha treatises, transmitted in palm-leaf and paper manuscripts, can be dated no earlier than circa 1637, whereas the youngest examples of the tradition were written under British colonialism around 1900. For the past decade Christian Lammerts has been involved in the first major study of this genre—its textual histories, laws, and shifting modes of reception and jurisprudence—on the basis of extensive fieldwork in Burma and close investigation of the epigraphic corpus and manuscript archive, which preserves hundreds of discrete texts in multiple, sometimes highly variant, versions. In this presentation Lammerts will discuss the results of this project, drawn from his forthcoming book, Buddhist Law in Burma: A History of Dhammasattha Texts and Jurisprudence, c. 1250–1850 CE (University of Hawai’i Press).
D. Christian Lammerts is Assistant Professor of Buddhist and Southeast Asian Studies at Rutgers University. He is interested in the cultural and intellectual histories of Buddhism and religious law in Burma and Southeast Asia, and is currently at work on a study of juridical curses, oaths, and ordeals around of the Bay of Bengal from the late first millennium CE up to the early colonial era. His publications may be accessed via http://rci.rutgers.edu/~DCL96.